Lewis E Lehrman
History
Book Watch: Churchill, Roosevelt & Company: Studies in Character and Statecraft (February 12, 2017 - Defence Report)
The ‘Great and Noble Undertaking’ of the Second World War, the largest conflict in human history, confounds the mind. The sheer scale is almost incomprehensible. The Second World War has consumed our social, political and academic conscious, shaping the world left in its wake.

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Lewis E. Lehrman op-ed: Thanksgiving with the president in Cairo in '43 (November 24, 2016 - Greenwich Time)
"There are some on this Thanksgiving Day who will feel that everything for which they might be thankful is overshadowed by the loss of some young life, either in the process of training or in the actual fighting," Eleanor Roosevelt wrote in her "Thought for the Day" column on Nov. 25,1943. "But even to those who are sad, there is reason for thankfulness in the thought that the cause for which their loved ones died is triumphing."

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One intrepid American warrior on D-Day (May 30, 2016 - Stamford Advocate)
His infantry units had drifted off course while landing on Utah Beach. Fortuitously, Roosevelt’s units landed nearly a mile from the division’s destination. In contrast to the desperate fighting elsewhere on D-Day, especially on Omaha Beach, Roosevelt landed on a part of the Cotentin Peninsula of Normandy that was not heavily defended by Germans.

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The Prime Minister and the General: Churchill and Eisenhower (Spring 2016 - Finest Hour)
When Winston Churchill died in January 1965, President Lyndon Johnson decided not to attend the funeral.

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July 4th, The Declaration of Independence -- With a Russian Inspiration (July 4, 2015 - Greenwich Time and Stamford Advocate)
Fireworks have long been part of the Independence Day celebrations in the United States. The Continental Congress specifically authorized a fireworks display for July 4, 1777 -- the first anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

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Lehrman: American tradition has Russian inspiration (July 2, 2015 - Stamford Advocate)
Fireworks have long been part of the Independence Day celebrations in the United States. The Continental Congress specifically authorized a fireworks display for July 4, 1777 — the first anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

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Winston's Declaration (July 4, 2014 - Putnam County News & Recorder)
Seventy years ago, the landing of Allied soldiers continued on Normandy’s beaches – four weeks after the initial DDaylandings on the French coast. On July 4, 1944, just west of the nearby city of Caen, Canadian troops began Operation Windsor - a bloody assault throughFrench wheat fields against SS machine guns defending the town of Carpiquet and its airfield.

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How a Cynic Crafted the Constitution and Fell for the Romance of America (July 5, 2013 - The New York Sun)
"We the people" begins the Preamble of the Constitution of the United States. These are the words of 35-year-old Gouverneur Morris, the talented wordsmith who fine-tuned this Founding document. New Yorker Morris represented Pennsylvania at the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The language of the final draft can be attributed to the committee on style that Morris headed.

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His Excellency, General Washington (July 3, 2013 - Greenwich Time)
During the heady days of July 1776, after the Declaration of Independence was approved, British commanders in New York sought out General George Washington hoping to resolve the conflict.

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Connecticut's Roger Sherman, The Everyman Founder (July 1, 2013 - The Hartford Courant)
Connecticut's Roger Sherman was a man of distinctive character and talent. The signer of the Declaration of Independence, which we will celebrate Thursday, was reserved, awkward, quiet, even-tempered, open-minded and extraordinarily active. Sherman had virtually no formal education, but he wound up one of the most accomplished Founders.

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James Monroe, the 'other' former president who died on July 4 (June 27, 2013 - Washington Examiner)
On July 4, 1831, the fifth president of the United States died in New York City, far from his home in Virginia. Sick and heavily in debt, the widowed James Monroe had moved north from Virginia in 1830 to live with his daughter.

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Winston Churchill and the Fourth of July (June 26, 2013 - Putnam County News & Recorder)
On July 4, 1940, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill released a memorandum to his country's public officials: "On what may be the eve of an attempted invasion or battle for our native land, the Prime Minister desires to impress upon all persons holding responsible positions in the Government, in the Fighting Services, or in the Civil Departments, their duty to maintain a spirit of alert and confident energy."

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John and Samuel Adams on the road to independence (July 2, 2012 - Greenwich Time)
The Declaration of Independence has long been associated with Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. Jefferson was the pen who drafted the Declaration. Adams was the leading speaker for independence in the Continental Congress. At one point on July 1, in the debate leading up to the Declaration, Adams was called on to summarize both sides of the debate for late-arriving delegates from New Jersey. That was John Adam's strength -- speaking cogently on his feet.

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A Hanging Affair (June 27, 2012 - Putnam County News & Recorder)
America's Declaration of Independence was not signed on July 4, 1776, nor was independence voted on July 4. Rather, on July 4, the Continental Congress finished editing Thomas Jefferson's draft of the Declaration. The Congress had approved independence in principle two days earlier.

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Election of 1824: The Battle of the Giants (June 21, 2012 - Stamford Advocate)
Taking office in 1817, President James Monroe had been very careful to construct his Cabinet in such a way as not to show favoritism to potential successors. Since he and two other presidents had previously served as secretary of state, that post was considered a stepping stone to the White House. Monroe’s reelection in 1820, virtually without opposition, had been a celebration of political “good feeling” in the country. Americans awaited a “Battle of the Giants” in 1824.

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Election of 1816: The Virginia Succession (June 14, 2012 - Stamford Advocate)
In 1816, Secretary of State James Monroe was the logical successor to President James Madison. Like Madison, he had served as secretary of state. Like Madison, he was a close friend and protégé of Thomas Jefferson. Like Madison and Jefferson, he was from Virginia. He had a great resume -- in addition to secretary of state, he had served as secretary of war under the Madison administration.

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The election of 1808: Battle of neighbors (June 6, 2012 - Greenwich Time)
By the time Thomas Jefferson prepared to retire from the presidency after two terms in 1808, James Madison had served for eight years as secretary of state. Madison was a close friend, advisor and Virginia neighbor of Jefferson. The president clearly wanted the younger Madison to succeed him in the White House, which Jefferson was anxious to vacate.

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Presidential election of 1800: America's most vicious (May 31, 2012 - StamfordAdvocate.com)
“What an effort, my dear Sir, of bigotry in Politics & Religion have gone through!” wrote Thomas Jefferson after his inauguration as America’s third President in March 1801. Addressing a famed English scientist, Jefferson complained: “The barbarians really flattered themselves they should be able to bring back the times of Vandalism, when ignorance put everything into the hands of the powerful & priestcraft…We were to look backwards, not forwards for improvement.”

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George Washington: A leader's diligence (February 21, 2012 - Greenwich Time)
George Washington was a reluctant leader. He was reluctant in 1775 to assume command of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. In 1787, he was reluctant to be a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, over which he was chosen to preside. In 1789, Washington was reluctant to become president of the United States of America.

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Presidential Ambition: Surveying a course for themselves, and the nation (February 9, 2012 - Greenwich Time)
They were big men. George Washington was 6-foot-3. Abraham Lincoln was almost 6-4. Their ambitions were equally big -- first for themselves, and then for the nation they would lead.

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How Pennsylvania lost its chance to have the nation's capital (July 16, 2011 - PennLive.com)
The city of Columbia, Pa., almost became the capital of the United States. At a meeting in New York in September 1789, the House of Representatives voted for a site along the Susquehanna River, probably the site of the small town 28 miles south of Harrisburg.

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Winston Churchill and the Fourth of July (July 4, 2011 - Connecticut Journal-Inquirer)
Near the end of World War I, Winston Churchill spoke on the "142nd anniversary of American independence." The occasion was a Liberty Day rally in London on July 4, 1918. For the first time in history, Britain and America were allies in war.

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Dolley Madison, Betsey Hamilton and Abraham Lincoln, Together at the Washington Monument (July 4, 2011 - FoxNews.com)
On July 4, 1848, Dolley Madison, the 80-year-old widow of President James Madison, joined 90-year-old Elizabeth Hamilton on the mall in the nation's capital.

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Churchill and Lincoln: Guardians of democracy (May 27, 2011 - Greenwich Time)
On April 9, 1865, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, effectively ending the Civil War. Four score years later in April 1945, the Allied coalition in Europe effectively strangled the Nazi war machine.

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Washington's Brief Farewell (February 21, 2011 - Stamford Advocate)
George Washington gave several notable farewell addresses. The first was a written circular to the troops distributed in September 1783. Four months later, he would give a brief address as he returned his commission to the American Congress.

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Washington's farewell address (September 19, 2010 - Connecticut Post)
George Washington's Farewell Address was not a public speech. Nor was it a farewell. The presidential message was printed in a Philadelphia newspaper on Sept. 19, 1796, more than five months before the nation's first chief executive left office.

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Edited by committee: The Declaration of Independence (July 4, 2010 - Greenwich Time)
Thomas Jefferson was a writer, not a speechmaker. Even his most memorable public address -- his first presidential inaugural in 1801 -- was delivered in barely audible tones.

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Martha Washington: The First Lady (February 19, 2010 - Stamford Advocate)
Martha Dandridge's first husband died after seven years of marriage and four children. A year and a half later at age 27, the pretty, personable and very rich widow married her second husband, George Washington -- on January 6, 1759.

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Franklin and Lincoln: True Leaders for Change (January 17, 2010 - Connecticut Post)
They were born 103 years apart. Abraham Lincoln was born in rural Kentucky in 1809. Benjamin Franklin was born in relatively cosmopolitan Boston on Jan. 17, 1706 -- 304 years ago, today.

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The Death of George Washington (December 14, 2009 - Fox Forum)
George Washington died on December 14, 1799. The 60-year-old former president was effectively asphyxiated over a two-day period. "I die hard," said Washington before he passed away. It was indeed a hard and painful death which Washington met with his usual stoicism.

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President and prize-winner was a bull moose ( October 21, 2009 - Greenwich Time)
Theodore Roosevelt was campaigning for president in Milwaukee, Wisconsin when he was shot in the chest. John Schrank, an anarchist and would-be assassin fired his .38 revolver as Roosevelt paused outside the Hotel Gilpatrick to wave to the crowd. Schrank was quickly seized, the former president seemed unfazed, and local doctors quickly ruled that his wound was superficial.

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400 years ago, Hudson sparked our long river voyage ( September 16, 2009 - Norwalk Advocate)
Two centuries before Abraham Lincoln was born, Henry Hudson sailed up the river that would come to bear his name. After tentatively exploring the mouth of the Delaware River and the Chesapeake Bay to the south during the summer of 1609, Hudson spent three weeks sailing up and down the Hudson. Hudson's ship, the Half Moon, got as far as present-day Albany before turning back because of impediments to further travel upriver.

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Holding court: Connecticut's Oliver Ellsworth (August 21, 2009 - Danbury News)
Sometimes, you need to know when to quit. Connecticut delegate Oliver Ellsworth left the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia on Aug. 23, 1787 -- nearly a month before the Constitution itself was formalized. But Ellsworth had left his mark on the founding document before departing. During late July and early August, Ellsworth served on the five-man committee chaired by James Wilson that crafted the language of the U.S. Constitution.

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Father's Day with the Founding Fathers (June 21, 2009 - Connecticut Post)
Proper education and conduct was a repeated theme of letters from the Founders to their favorite relatives. Alexander Hamilton's advice to his 9-year-old daughter Angelica could easily have been written by rival Thomas Jefferson: "I was very glad to learn, my dear daughter, that you were going to begin the study of the French language. We hope you will in every respect behave in such a manner as will secure to you the goodwill and regard of all those with whom you are associated."

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The men who created this country owned much of it, too (May 15, 2009 - Stamford Advocate)
America was built in part on land investment and speculation. In 1796 as he was preparing to leave office, President George Washington wrote Sir John Sinclair a long letter about the characteristics and value of American land, which Sinclair was considering purchasing: "The rise in the value of landed property, in this country, has been progressive, ever since my attention has been turned to the subject -- now more than 40 years -- but for the last three or four (years) of that period, it has increased beyond all calculations -- owing in part to the attachment to, and the confidence which the people are beginning to place in, their form of Government -- and to the prosperity of the country from a variety of concurring causes, none more than to the late high prices of its produce."

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Nation divided is an old American story (December 3, 2008 - Greenwich Time)
Barack Obama is not the first president-elect to confront the demons of division. Thomas Jefferson confronted such a situation after the election on 1800 — perhaps the most bitter and unpredictable in American history. Jefferson and John Adams, who had bonded as fellow members of the Continental Congress and as American diplomats in Paris, had split during the administration of President Washington.

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Whither American History and American Capitalism (November 6, 2007 - Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History)

We gather to think about American History, to consider the academic standing of our national patrimony, even to think about its adversaries. In President Lincoln’s final message to Congress, he admonished us that “[Our opponents] do not attempt to deceive us. [They] afford us no excuse to deceive ourselves…” Even the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence, Woodrow Wilson, warned us about academic politics - just as he was giving up the Presidency of Princeton University. Announcing his candidacy for Governor of New Jersey in 1912, it was reported he was asked by a reporter why in the world would you give up academic eminence at Princeton for the Governorship of New Jersey? Because, Wilson is supposed to have said, I wanted to get out of politics.

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To Be Presented Here: Lincoln Prize Promotes Unity (April 17, 2005 - TimesDispatch.com)
We who love our common country embraces the study of American history. The Lincoln Prize originates in this patriotic sentiment. It was Abraham Lincoln himself who confided, in a eulogy of Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky, that we love our country not only because it is our country, but also because it is a free country.

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Alexander Hamilton (March 31, 1999)
Richard Brookhiser, the celebrated author of Rediscovering George Washington (1996), intrudes again upon the specious present to hold up for the praise of men the character and achievements of Alexander Hamilton, (1999). "He is a great man" we are told. Indeed, "...a great American". This is so, according to Brookhiser, because "most men, who make it, provide for their families, thank fortune, and maybe give to charity." But Hamilton was different, Brookhiser insists, not because Hamilton (a prodigy like the younger Pitt) became America's first Secretary of the Treasury at 32; neither because he towered over all the other cabinet officers as the de facto first minister of the founding administration. But because, from his front position at the post, he designed, into his comprehensive program of economic growth and national institution building, "ways to bring light to the talents of other men as well as himself." In a word, magnanimity marked his essential character. His pathbreaking policies, though not populist, "would enable his countrymen to become conscious of their resources."

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